The mass deportation of nationalists to Europe in 1872 (when the liberals were removed from power in Spain) resulted in a large community of Filipino expatriates across the continent. The community became one with the Ilustrados (the Filipino educated class studying in Europe) and they soon joined forces with the Spanish liberals in search of change, setting up La Solidaridad newspaper in the process.
Among those who were desperate for a reform in the Philippines was José Rizal, who wrote two novels while in Europe and was soon considered by many to be the most influential of the Ilustrados. These novels went on to strengthen the feeling of unrest back on the islands and eventually led to the creation of the Katipunan - a revolutionary society dedicated to gaining independence from Spain for the Philippines.
While still in Europe, Rizal made a bid to take control of La Solidaridad but a rivalry soon developed between him and Marcelo H. del Pilar. The majority of expatriates expressed their support for Pilar, and Rizal subsequently made the decision to return to the Philippines.
Upon his return to the archipelago, Rizal organised La Liga Filipina, which was dedicated to supporting those in the reform movement back on the islands. Just days after founding the group, however, he was arrested for his actions.
In spite of this, the group continued to grow and develop on its own, with radical members deciding in 1892 to found Katipunan, which took over the role of the main organisation in the Philippines dedicated to ensuring the country seceded from the Spanish Empire.
"Rizal and Katipunan". HistoryLearning.com. 2023. Web.